Template:Pp-pc Script error Script error

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[[Script error|250px]]

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width = 12em topimagestyle = padding-top: 1em; padding-bottom: 1em; topimage = J title = ISO basic
Latin alphabet
content1 =
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh
Ii Jj Kk Ll
Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt
Uu Vv Ww Xx
Yy Zz

J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its normal name in English is jay Script error or, now uncommonly, jy Script error.[1][2] When used for the palatal approximant, it may be called yod (Script error or Script error) or yot (Script error or Script error).

History Edit

File:Childs new plaything 1743 alphabet.jpg

The letter J was used as the swash letter I, used for the letter I at the end of Roman numerals when following another I, as in XXIIJ or xxiij instead of XXIII or xxiii for the Roman numeral representing 23. A distinctive usage emerged in Middle High German.[3] Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478–1550) was the first to explicitly distinguish I and J as representing separate sounds, in his Ɛpistola del Trissino de le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua italiana ("Trissino's epistle about the letters recently added in the Italian language") of 1524.[4] Originally, 'I' and 'J' were different shapes for the same letter, both equally representing Script error, Script error, and Script error; but, Romance languages developed new sounds (from former Script error and Script error) that came to be represented as 'I' and 'J'; therefore, English J, acquired from the French J, has a sound value quite different from Script error (which represents the initial sound in the English word "yet").

Use in writing systems Edit

English Edit

In English, ⟨j⟩ most commonly represents the affricate Script error. In Old English, the phoneme Script error was represented orthographically with ⟨cg⟩ and ⟨cȝ⟩.[5] Under the influence of Old French, which had a similar phoneme deriving from Latin Script error, English scribes began to use ⟨i⟩ (later ⟨j⟩) to represent word-initial Script error in Old English (for example, iest and, later jest), while using ⟨dg⟩ elsewhere (for example, hedge).[5] Later, many other uses of ⟨i⟩ (later ⟨j⟩) were added in loanwords from French and other languages (e.g. adjoin, junta). The first English language book to make a clear distinction between ⟨i⟩ and ⟨j⟩ was published in 1633.[6] In loan words such as raj, ⟨j⟩ may represent Script error. In some of these, including raj, Azerbaijan, Taj Mahal, and Beijing, the regular pronunciation Script error is actually closer to the native pronunciation, making the use of Script error an instance of a hyperforeignism.[7] Occasionally, ⟨j⟩ represents the original Script error sound, as in Hallelujah and fjord (see Yodh for details). In words of Spanish origin, where ⟨j⟩ represents the voiceless velar fricative Template:IPAblink (such as jalapeño), English speakers usually approximate with the voiceless glottal fricative Script error.

In English, ⟨j⟩ is the fourth least frequently used letter in words, being more frequent only than ⟨z⟩, ⟨q⟩, and ⟨x⟩. It is, however, quite common in proper nouns, especially personal names.

Other languages Edit

Germanic and Eastern-European languages Edit

File:Pronunciation of J in Europa.png

The great majority of Germanic languages, such as German, Dutch, Icelandic, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian, use ⟨j⟩ for the palatal approximant Template:IPAslink, which is usually represented by the letter ⟨y⟩ in English. Notable exceptions are English, Scots and (to a lesser degree) Luxembourgish. ⟨j⟩ also represents Template:IPAslink in Albanian, and those Uralic, Slavic and Baltic languages that use the Latin alphabet, such as Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Latvian and Lithuanian. Some related languages, such as Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian, also adopted ⟨j⟩ into the Cyrillic alphabet for the same purpose. Because of this standard, the lower case letter was chosen to be used in the IPA as the phonetic symbol for the sound.

Romance languages Edit

In the Romance languages, ⟨j⟩ has generally developed from its original palatal approximant value in Latin to some kind of fricative. In French, Portuguese, Catalan, and Romanian it has been fronted to the postalveolar fricative Template:IPAslink (like ⟨s⟩ in English measure). In Spanish, by contrast, it has been both devoiced and backed from an earlier Template:IPAslink to a present-day Template:IPAslink ~ Template:IPAslink,[8] with the actual phonetic realization depending on the speaker's dialect/s.

In modern standard Italian spelling, only Latin words, proper nouns (such as Jesi, Letojanni, Juventus etc.) or those borrowed from foreign languages have ⟨j⟩. Until the 19th century, ⟨j⟩ was used instead of ⟨i⟩ in diphthongs, as a replacement for final -ii, and in vowel groups (as in Savoja); this rule was quite strict for official writing. ⟨j⟩ is also used to render Template:IPAslink in dialect, e.g. Template:Clarify span. The Italian novelist Luigi Pirandello used ⟨j⟩ in vowel groups in his works written in Italian; he also wrote in his native Sicilian language, which still uses the letter ⟨j⟩ to represent Template:IPAslink (and sometimes also [dʒ] or [gj], depending on its environment).[9]

Basque Edit

In Basque, the diaphoneme represented by ⟨j⟩ has a variety of realizations according to the regional dialect: Script error (the last one is typical of Gipuzkoa).

Non-European languages Edit

Among non-European languages that have adopted the Latin script, ⟨j⟩ stands for Template:IPAslink in Turkish and Azerbaijani, for Template:IPAslink in Tatar. ⟨j⟩ stands for Template:IPAslink in Indonesian, Somali, Malay, Igbo, Shona, Oromo, Turkmen, and Zulu. It represents a voiced palatal plosive Template:IPAslink in Konkani, Yoruba, and Swahili. In Kiowa, ⟨j⟩ stands for a voiceless alveolar plosive, Template:IPAslink.

⟨j⟩ stands for Template:IPAslink in the romanization systems of most of the Languages of India such as Hindi and Telugu and stands for Template:IPAslink in the Romanization of Japanese.

In Chinese Pinyin, ⟨j⟩ stands for Template:IPAslink, the unaspirated equivalent of ⟨q⟩.

The Royal Thai General System of Transcription does not use the letter ⟨j⟩, although it is used in some proper names and non-standard transcriptions to represent either Template:Lang Script error or Template:Lang Script error (the latter following Pali/Sanskrit root equivalents).

In romanized Pashto, ⟨j⟩ represents ځ, pronounced Script error.

Related characters Edit

Computing codes Edit


1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Unicode also has a dotless variant, ȷ (U+0237). It is primarily used in Landsmålsalfabet and in mathematics. It is not intended to be used with diacritics since the normal j is softdotted in Unicode (that is, the dot is removed if a diacritic is to be placed above; Unicode further states that, for example i+ ¨ ≠ ı+¨ and the same holds true for j and ȷ).[13]

Template:AnchorIn Unicode, a duplicate of 'J' for use as a special phonetic character in historical Greek linguistics is encoded in the Greek script block as ϳ (Unicode U+03F3). It is used to denote the palatal glide Script error in the context of Greek script. It is called "Yot" in the Unicode standard, after the German name of the letter J.[14][15] An uppercase version of this letter was added to the Unicode Standard at U+037F with the release of version 7.0 in June 2014.[16][17]

Wingdings smiley issue Edit

In the Wingdings font by Microsoft, the letter "J" is rendered as a smiley face (note this is distinct from the Unicode code point U+263A, which renders as ☺). In Microsoft applications, ":)" is automatically replaced by a smiley rendered in a specific font face when composing rich text documents or HTML email. This autocorrection feature can be switched off or changed to a Unicode smiley.[18] [19]

Other usesEdit

Other representations Edit

Template:Letter other reps

References Edit

External links Edit


Template:Latin script

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